Aims: Skeletal muscle wasting is affected by the gut microbiota dysbiosis through multiple pathways, including inflammatory process, defected immune system, and anabolic resistance. We aimed to systematically review the studies investigating the gut microbiota composition in sarcopenic and cachexic humans and animals.
Methods: We carried out a comprehensively systematic search using relevant keywords on PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases until July 2021. Original human observational research and animal studies related to our research topics published in English were selected.
Results: Seven human studies and five animal studies were included. Three human studies were case-control, whereas the other four were cross-sectional studies that investigated three different conditions, including age-related sarcopenia, as well as liver cirrhosis and cancer cachexia. The principal alteration in age-related sarcopenia and liver cirrhosis-induced sarcopenia was a reduction in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) -producing bacteria. Lachnospiraceae family, consisting of Lachnospira, Fusicatenibacter, Roseburia, and Lachnoclostridium, significantly decreased in age-related sarcopenia, while in liver cirrhosis-induced sarcopenia, the alpha diversity of gut microbiota decreased compared with the control group. Moreover,
Enterobacteriaceae, which has a pro-inflammatory effect increased in muscle-wasted animals
Amirabbas Nikkhah 1, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed 2 3, Fateme Ettehad Marvasti 3, MinaSadat Taghavi 3, Azin Pakmehr 3, Firouzeh Hajipour 3, Bagher Larijani 3